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FEATURED BUILD - FSW3 with PowerTap.

Our last trip to the wind tunnel proved that the Kinlin rims in our FSW3 wheels are every bit as fast as those 40+mm carbons you use on race day. So now that your everyday alloys can also be your game day wheels, there's no better time to add a PowerTap. Especially since we've added tires (installed) and knocked $135 off the price.



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The colors of feet, or sock it to me

This past summer, on the local Tuesday night ride, Cecilia showed up wearing some really great socks with shades of blue climbing up to be topped by a band of pink. As they matched my blue frame/pink hubs bike setup, I was immediately smitten with them and asked who makes them. "Ridge Supply."

What Newport lacks in riding variety it makes up in scenery. Tuesday Night Worlds course.You can perhaps see why the socks appealed to me?We've spoken before of why we aren't able or inclined to do the huge "BOGO" or whatever other promo discounts that you find other places in the bicycle game (short answer - we can't give away what we never charged in the first place, our every day deal is as good as most doorbuster promos), but as the new year approached we thought it would be nice to do something fun. And so we approached Ridge Supply to see if they'd be game to do a sock co-promo with us and they were. So there.

Coincedentally with that, we've "upped our graphics game" as the kids say these days, and FSW3s and FSW3 Disc wheels now come with an astonishing array of logo color options to match your frame, match your socks, match your ink, match your hair, contrast with any of the above, or just remain in "humble brag" understated black. And that, my friends, is a whole lotta color. 

See what we did there?

For a limited time, but any set of FSW3 or FSW3 Disc wheels, and you will get a code from us. Go to Ridge Supply's site, choose a pair of socks, and the socks and shipping are on us. It's that easy. 


Which hubs are for me, part 2: White Industries T11

Dave digs pink hubs. In this, he is not alone.White Industries' T11 hubs have been the de facto standard for our road builds for a long time. It would be fair to call us raving fans, and since their introduction we've sold more of them than any other hub. They have no significant liabilities. But first, let's do the numbers...

The geometry numbers for the T11 are a great balance of all of the relevant parameters. When thinking about these numbers, the most important question is really "can we put an outstanding set of wheels together based on these hubs?" In any hub we use, the answer is "yes," but with T11s it's an emphatic yes. We also have an enormous background with them, can strip them down and put them back together blindfolded in about .25 seconds, and have NEVER had a substantive issue with one. All of that makes us 100% comfortable recommending them to anyone in any application to which they fit. If Peter Sagan needed us to build our best set of wheels for his classics campaign next year, these would be the hubs. 

The front hub has a forged and machined shell, and aluminum axle, 2 #6901 bearings, and aluminum endcaps. The bearing preload adjustment system is simple and effective. A lot of people freak out when they look at the hub and see that one end looks a little different from the other, and they think something's wrong. That's how it's supposed to be. 

The rear hub has two compelling features that most hubs don't: a steel axle and a titanium cassette body. The steel axle provides a great deal of strength and stiffness at a small expense of weight. To us, this trade is well worth it. The rear bearings are kept precisely concentric and parallel, and overall wheel stiffness is enhanced. The titanium cassette body is frankly impervious to cassette spline chew, resulting in a lifetime of precise shifting and zero pain in the butt when changing cassettes. They simply don't wear. 

The rear bearing adjust is also easy and effective. The adjustment instructions that WI provides on their site are complete and easy to follow. The rear hub has 3 #6902 bearings and 1 #3802 (Campy cassette bodies swap one of the 6902s for a 3802). All bearings are made by Enduro, they work great out of the box, they require very little very simple maintenance, and they are easy to replace. Again, if you must on ceramic bearings, those are easy to get. 

Switching between Shimano, Campy, and XD drives is easy, requiring no re-dish. The cassette bodies being titanium, they're a bit expensive, but they're lifetime parts. 

By way of critiques, there are very few. The drive side outboard bearing in the cassette body is perhaps a little more exposed to the elements than on some hubs. We have seen a very few adjustment-side endcaps that were a tiny bit small and didn't provide the nice interference/slip fit that they usually do. That's really it. They're great hubs and WI is awesome to work with. 

For the value provided, T11s are an outstanding value, even if they cost a little more than the standard November hubs. We have every confidence telling people that while rims may come and go, you can just relace your T11s into whatever "next" set of rims you get, and you're back rolling. And then hand them down to your kids after that. 

Available colors (in approximate order of popularity per our orders) are black, red, pink, blue, purple, silver, and gold. 


Which hubs are for me? Part 1

Having given a general overview of hubs and how they work, and some of the general differences between the ones we use, it's time to go into more specifics on each one. We start with the November by Novatec rim brake hubs, as used in our standard FSW3 wheel sets, and available as an option in custom builds. As Kai Ryssdal says every night on NPR Marketplace, "but first, let's do the numbers..."

To quickly explain each of the parameters, left and right flange distances are how far each flange is from the lateral centerline of the hub. Non-dished wheels (road fronts, track wheels) will have the same flange distance left and right. Dished wheels have unequal flange distances. Rears will have a greater left offset owing to the space needed for the cassette, while disc fronts have a greater right distance because of the need for space for the rotor on the left side. 

Symmetrical flange distances on a rim brake front hubLeft flange on a dished rear hub is farther from center than the rightThis flange situation is why the spokes on a rim brake front have equal tensions on both sides, and why a rear wheel's drive side spokes are tighter than the non-drive side. In order to equalize the tensions in a rear wheel, the hub design can move the left flange inboard to decrease the differential, but this comes with a detriment to overall wheel stability. 

Flange spread is the primary determinant of how laterally stiff a wheel will build on any given hub. Simply add the two flange distances together to get flange spread. In general, the more the better. However, that needs to be balanced with tension differential as described above. Flange diameter is also part of the flange spread/stability equation. Taller flanges effectively increase flange spread, since both larger flange spread and bigger diameter flanges will flatten the angle at which spokes go from the hub to the rim. The point here is that triangles with wide bases are more stable than triangles with relatively narrower bases.

Bearing spread isn't something you find in most (any?) hub spec sheets, but it's an important criteria. Getting the bearings as far outboard as possible is a benefit to stability, as less of the axle is cantilevered outboard of the flange. 

In the dimensions we give, flange distance, spread, and diameter are given to center (center of the flange in distance and spread, center of the spoke hole in diameter). This is the general convention for measuring these. Bearing spreads are given outside to outside. These are kind of a pain in the butt to measure, and since there is no general convention for measuring these, we've just left them that way. 

So, what about these hubs, then?

Front Hub

The front hub is lightweight, with decent flange and bearing spread. Of the road fronts we'll review, it has the lowest flange spread and flange diameter figures. While it's a fantastic front hub for a ton of situations, it is not the right hub for bigger riders looking to get the most out of a low spoke count front wheel. Because of the smaller flange diameter, we don't love it in 28h and we won't build them in 32h - the distance betweeen spoke holes gets really small in high spoke counts, which weakens the flange in a situation where by definition you want to have very strong flanges. 

The bearings we spec for these are great, the equal of any other bearings on offer with the likely exception of Kings. King makes their own bearings, and they are pretty special. It's easy to find similar hubs but with really crap bearings, which lowers the price. The bearings are a standard 699 size and if you feel that your life is incomplete without ceramic bearings, they are easy to source and install (we think your life is either complete or incomplete regardless of ceramic bearings, though).

Durability, as with many front hubs, is excellent. What maintenance there is to do is accomplished with 2 5mm and one 6mm hex wrenches. Insert a 5 into each end cap and counter rotate them, which will spin one cap off. Put the 6 into that end, counter rotate again, and both caps are off, exposing the bearings. Drying wet bearings, repacking dry bearings, and replacing worn bearings is very easy. 

Rear Hub

The rear hub, like the front, is a simple utilitarian and effective design. It's light without making sacrifices to do it, and it has one superb innovation. 

Flange geometry is decent but not quite as good as the boutique hubs we do. Stability is quite good, tension ratios are very slightly lower on these than others. In practice, this hasn't presented any issues, although we do tend to recommend other hubs for bigger riders wanting to press lower spoke counts - you can get more stiffness out of "all else equal" builds with the other hubs we use. Bearing spread is also quite good. The rear axle is aluminum, as are all the other rim brake hubs we do except for White Industries T11.

The cassette body is a great feature of the rear hub. The Anti Bite Guard uses on steel spline on an otherwise all aluminum cassette body, which markedly reduces cassette body wear at the expense of almost no weight. Chewed up cassette bodies can cause shifting problems, as cogs get out of alignment, and at the very least make it a real pain in the butt to change cassettes.

The drive mechanism is driven by four pawls, with 27 engagment points. Not the fastest engagement on the market, but still quite good and absolutely completely adequate for any road riding application. 

Nothing fancy, just reliable and good

Maintenance, as with the front, is super simple. You subsitute a 10mm hex for the 6mm that you use in the front, and all else is the same. 

Both front and rear hub sheels are forged and then machined, as all of our hubs are. This is the way to do it. We have received zero known issues of hub sheel failure in 6 years of using these hubs, and have had an overall outstanding customer satisfaction rate with them.


As a prelude to conclusion, it's worth noting that exceptionally close cousins of these hubs are used in PLENTY of $1000+ factory builds. The ABG cassette body makes it pretty obvious to a casual glance, but there are other things that are easy for the trained eye to spot. Novatec is likely the biggest OEM hub maker out there, they have a bunch of products at different price points, and these are among their best hubs.

For the vast majority of cyclists out there, these are a fantastic choice. They aren't the lightest or the anything-est, but they perform wonderfully and allow us to sell the FSW3 at a price somewhere generally between 30% and 50% less than equivalent wheels on the market. They do well in all conditions as an every-day-use hub, they let you get everything possible out of our wheels in terms of speed, and they are as "set it and forget it" as it is possible to be. The only liability they have is use by really big riders, as mentioned above. 

They may not be the fanciest hubs in the display case, and come in any color you like as long as you like black, but objectively these are hubs with which most people will have a fantastic ownership experience. 


Hubs part 3

Part 3 wraps up the general overview of various hub features and how they work. Hopefully this section gives you all the info you need to be an informed consumer of hubs. 

There are two things I should have discussed at more detail in the previous section on hubs being the anchor point for the spokes, so I'll add them here and then add them there.

1. Flange geometry dictates build stiffness of all wheels, and determines spoke tension ratios of dished wheels (all rears, and disc fronts). In rim brake front wheels, generally speaking more flange spread is better for stiffness. The flange spread creates the base of the triangle, and triangles with wider bases are more stable. In rear wheels, flange spread becomes more problematic. It increases build stiffness, but it decreases tension ratio - the drive side flange can't go farther outboard, so increasing flange spread means moving just the non-drive side outboard. That means the non-drive spokes have less tension. Insufficient non-drive spoke tension creates problems. Same is true of disc front wheels. This is why we like the offset rims in the FSW3 Disc so much - insufficient off-side tension hasn't been an issue in our builds, but we think the equalized tensions in the offset disc builds are helpful in particular for disc wheels, which generally see more stress than rim brake wheels. 2:1 and similar uneven lacings present a few issues that prevent us from being fans. For one, unless you have a specifically optimized hub, they just improve spoke tension balance and do nothing (sometimes negative, even) for build stiffness. For two, they leave a very long unsupported span between non-drive spokes, which can screw with the ability to really nail tension even-ness on the non-drive side. For three, availability of parts to do it correctly is thin.

2. Bearing spread. Subject to a few small caveats, the farther outboard you shove the bearings, the better. This leaves less unsupported axle length cantilevered past the bearings. There are some caveats that we'll get into with each hub in the next parts. 

And now onto Episode 3...

The Transmission

  1. Industry Nine, White Industries, and Novatec hubs use more common pawl/ratchet drive systems. For road, WI and I9 use 3 pawls, while Novatec uses 4. White Industries disc hubs use a 48 point ratchet ring, while I9 doubles the pawl count to 6 on their mountain hubs. This is a reliable and proven system that generally works very well, lasts very long, and is easy to fix if something goes awry.
  2. Chris King hubs use a ring drive system. A spring within the hub pushes a spiral clutch out against a mated surface on the cassette body when you are pedaling, and allows the spiral clutch to push in and allow the hub to spin independently of the cassette body (creating the famous “angry bees” noise) when you coast. This system is more complicated, offers increased ultimate strength, and of course creates a compelling noise.
  3. Engagement speed is a topic that gets a lot of press lately. The more points of engagement that you have, the more quickly your pedaling turns into watts applied to turning the wheel. The tradeoff is that engagement creates more friction when coasting. One way or another, it’s not a huge difference. Because the balance of benefits tips more toward higher engagement being better for mountain biking, mountain bike-oriented hubs have more points of engagement than road equivalents (72 versus 45 for Chris King, 120 versus 60 for I9, and 48 versus 24 for WI – Novatec has the same in both). You will notice a benefit in points of engagement more when you are accelerating from slow speed, or particularly when you are ratcheting your cranks to clear obstacles on the trail. For road, where you are coasting either because you are going through a corner to fast to pedal through it, or because you are going downhill fast enough that pedaling doesn’t make sense, points of engagement generally means bupkus. Except that high engagement hubs can be super annoyingly loud – I love my I9 mountain bike hubs, but on the road that noise would turn good people bad.


Transmitting Brake Force from the Brakes to the Tires

  1. Six bolt rotors use – wait for it – six small bolts to hold the rotor onto the hub. This works on any kind of hub and is an open standard, so anyone can make a 6 bolt hub or rotor or lockring without paying any royalty to anyone. Rotors are readily available and can be reasonably inexpensive. photo stolen from White Industries
  2. Center lock rotors use a splined interface, sort of like how you put the cassette onto the cassette body, to mount the rotor to the hub. This is a Shimano-patented invention and, as such, they get a small royalty on every part sold on the standard. For our money, center lock offers a better fit between rotor and hub, and the rotors somehow seem to arrive and stay more true. They’re also a cleaner look. So we prefer them. It’s also easy to use an adapter to put a six bolt disc onto a center lock hub.
  3. Getting your rotors on various hubs perfectly aligned can be a small challenge. 1-3/8” ID x .001" thick shims work PERFECTLY to bump a centerlock rotor outboard in .25mm increments, while 6 bolt shim kits are available at bike shops. Set your brake calipers to the hub/rotor combo that sits farthest outboard, and then shim the others out to that spec.   

Hubs Part 2

Hubs Part Deux The Axis on Which the Wheel Spins

The big things here are axles, bearings, and bearing bores.

  1. The critical thing in this whole topic is that the bearings remain parallel (faced) to each other, and concentric with each other. Any deviation from that will reduce bearing life. Both begin with proper construction of the hub shell, and its bearing bores (the seating pockets for the bearings). If these are off to begin with, things are relatively hopeless. Everything in the world has a tolerance, but you want that tolerance to be small as possible. The shells of all of the hubs that we use are forged and then machined, which is the way you want things made. The forging creates the general shape and makes the material as strong as it can be, then machining cleans everything up and takes it to a tight tolerance. The bearing bores also need to be very round, as if they are out of round, then the bearing will either have a pinch point which will wear the balls and score the races, or the bearing will be able to move which takes it out of face and concentricity. You might not immediately notice a hub with bad characteristics here, but it would become apparent over time.
  2. Stress transmitted through the spokes can actually deform a hub shell. Some builders and brands use really high spoke tensions, which place unwanted strain on the hub shell. Some very lightweight hubs have the absolute bare minimum material to manage spoke stress (and they also usually use tiny small bearings, which are more easily stressed). This is why we aren’t raving enthusiasts of very lightweight hub designs. There are good ones, but they cost a lot of money and generally require more maintenance.
  3. Axles can be made from aluminum or steel. Steel is heavier but ultimately stronger, stiff and more durable. And flex in the axle will mean the bearings disorient relative to one another. Stiffer is better, but again comes at the expensive of weight. Axles are replaceable items, which you are unlikely to ever have to do, but if you ride your bike like you’re in a Martin Ashton video, you might eventually bend an axle. Despite the added weight, we think steel axles are a plus in the White Industries column.
  4. Bearings can either be cartridge bearings, or loose ball bearings. Shimano and Campagnolo hubs are the prominent loose ball bearings. Proponents say that loose ball bearings are longer lasting and easier to service. Personally, I think replacing a cartridge bearing as (rarely) needed is about a 5’ operation and super easy and inexpensive. All of the hubs we sell are cartridge bearing type hubs, and come with quality bearings. Quality, in bearing-ese, means that they are precise and made of hard, corrosion resistant material. All of the hubs we use have very good bearings, with Kings in particular being of legendary quality. We generally believe that ceramic bearings are a waste, as any benefits they offer (tolerance to being run dry, decreased friction at very high rpm, minor weight savings) are small and you have to spend a lot of money to get those benefits. Bargain ceramic bearings are typically not even as good as high quality steel bearings. Nonetheless, if you feel like you absolutely must have ceramics, they are easy to source and install for any of the hubs we use.
  5. Bearing sealing gets more important if you ride in crappy conditions often. White Industries hubs are slightly more exposed than the others. Kings have the most protective seals. The tradeoff is bearing drag versus durability. Our take is that the bearing drag penalty is minimal, as is the difficulty of maintaining a less-well protected bearing. So it's really not that huge a deal all around.White Industries pre-load adjuster setup
  6. Bearing pre-load adjustment is standard on White Industries and King hubs. This allows you to more precisely eliminate lateral play in the hub, using the minimum side pressure against the bearings. Both are relatively easy to use, though you do have to be aware of it. Industry Nine and Novatec hubs have no bearing adjustment. For most people, this is actually a benefit – though this may not be as optimal as a near-perfectly adjusted pre-load system, they require zero thought and work very very well. I think